Wednesday, February 26, 2014

TerminalPurely sensoryLamina terminalisSeptal nucleiInvolved in the detection of pheromones.[10][unreliable medical source?]
IOlfactoryPurely sensoryTelencephalonAnterior olfactory nucleusTransmits the sense of smell from the nasal cavity.[11] Located in the olfactory foramina in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone.
IIOpticSensoryRetinal ganglion cellsLateral geniculate nucleus[12]Transmits visual signals from the retina of the eye to the brain.[13] Located in theoptic canal.
IIIOculomotorMainly motorAnterior aspect of MidbrainOculomotor nucleus, Edinger-Westphal nucleusInnervates the levator palpebrae superioris, superior rectus,medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique, which collectively perform most eye movements. Also innervates the sphincter pupillae and the muscles of the ciliary body. Located in the superior orbital fissure.
IVTrochlearmotorDorsal aspect of MidbrainTrochlear nucleusInnervates the superior oblique muscle, which depresses, rotates laterally, and intorts the eyeball. Located in the superior orbital fissure.
VTrigeminalBoth sensory and motorPonsPrincipal sensory trigeminal nucleus, Spinal trigeminal nucleus,Mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, Trigeminal motor nucleusReceives sensation from the face and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Located in the;
superior orbital fissure (ophthalmic nerve - V1),
foramen rotundum (maxillary nerve - V2),
foramen ovale (mandibular nerve - V3).
VIAbducensMainly motorNuclei lying under the floor of the fourth ventricle
Abducens nucleusInnervates the lateral rectus, which abducts the eye. Located in the superior orbital fissure.
VIIFacialBoth sensory and motorPons (cerebellopontine angle) above oliveFacial nucleus, Solitary nucleus,Superior salivary nucleusProvides motor innervation to themuscles of facial expression, posterior belly of the digastric muscle,stylohyoidmuscle, andstapedius muscle. Also receives the special sense of taste from the anterior 2/3 of the tongue and provides secretomotorinnervation to the salivary glands (except parotid) and the lacrimal gland. Located in and runs through the internal acoustic canal to the facial canal and exits at thestylomastoid foramen.
(also auditory,[14] acoustic,[14] or auditory-vestibular)
Mostly sensoryLateral to CN VII (cerebellopontine angle)Vestibular nuclei, Cochlear nucleiMediates sensation of sound, rotation, and gravity (essential for balance and movement). More specifically, the vestibular branch carries impulses for equilibrium and the cochlear branch carries impulses for hearing. Located in the internal acoustic canal.
IXGlossopharyngealBoth sensory and motorMedullaNucleus ambiguus, Inferior salivary nucleus, Solitary nucleusReceives taste from the posterior 1/3 of the tongue, provides secretomotor innervation to the parotid gland, and provides motor innervation to the stylopharyngeus. Some sensation is also relayed to the brain from the palatine tonsils. Located in the jugular foramen.
XVagusBoth sensory and motorPosterolateral sulcus of MedullaNucleus ambiguus, Dorsal motor vagal nucleus, Solitary nucleusSupplies branchiomotorinnervation to most laryngeal and pharyngeal muscles (except the stylopharyngeus, which is innervated by the glossopharyngeal). Also provides parasympathetic fibers to nearly all thoracic and abdominal viscera down to the splenic flexure. Receives the special sense of taste from the epiglottis. A major function: controls muscles for voice and resonance and the soft palate. Symptoms of damage:dysphagia (swallowing problems),velopharyngeal insufficiency. Located in the jugular foramen.
cranial accessory
spinal accessory
Mainly motorCranial and Spinal RootsNucleus ambiguus, Spinal accessory nucleusControls the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles, and overlaps with functions of the vagus nerve (CN X). Symptoms of damage: inability to shrug, weak head movement. Located in the jugular foramen.
XIIHypoglossalMainly motorMedullaHypoglossal nucleusProvides motor innervation to the muscles of the tongue (except for the palatoglossal muscle, which is innervated by the vagus nerve) and other glossal muscles. Important for swallowing (bolus formation) and speech articulation. Passes through the hypoglossal canal.

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