While much Human Testing was done concerning Brain Computer Interface "in house' most social scientists believed that it was of necessity to test "Group Think" innovations in a "real time"closed society.As much of the nature of Psychological "Op-ertunity" Testing was found distasteful to the public(as the backlash from MK Ultra proved, outsourcing this peculiar technology required "a distancing from legitimized agencies"...in the late 50's scientists were pressed to "pre -suppose" the advanced technologies that would and could enable Mind Transcription and Mind Encryption Technology assumed tangible by the late 1970's.Foremost in the minds of Neurotechnolgy was the concept that Reverse Brain Engineering would be the cornerstone to understanding how a mind functioned in terms of input and output (interface) .In order to study "a mind" most neuro-scientists agreed that only a "Stylized Childhood"* of Imprints and Ingrained "Symbolistic Referentials"could enable this procedure .
In 1963 computer scientist and artificial intelligence researchers at the University of California at Berkeley Edward A. Feigenbaum and Julian Feldman issued Computers and Thought, the first anthology on artificial intelligence.
An unusual feature of the anthology was its reprinting of "A Selected Descriptor-Indexed Bibliography to the Literature on Artificial Intelligence" (1961) prepared by Marvin Minsky as a companion to his survey on the literature of the field entitled "Steps toward Artificial Intelligence,"
A brain computer interface, also known as mind-machine interface, is a direct communication interface between an external device and the brain, bypassing the need for an embodiment.
BCIs are directed at augmenting, assisting, or repairing sensory-motor or human cognitive functions. It combines technologies from the fields of electrical engineering, computer science, biomedical engineering, and neurosurgery.
In the 1970s, research on BCIs started at the University of California, which led to the emergence of the expression brain–computer interface. The focus of BCI research and development continues to be primarily on neuroprosthetics applications that can help restore damaged sight, hearing, and movement. The mid-1990s marked the appearance of the first neuroprosthetic devices for humans. BCI doesn’t read the mind accurately, but detects the smallest of changes in the energy radiated by the brain when you think in a certain way. A BCI recognizes specific energy/ frequency patterns in the brain.
Based on brain imaging technology, such as magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography, BCI looks for patterns of activity in the brain in real time.
Hans Berger’s innovation in the field of human brain research and its electrical activity has a close connection with the discovery of brain computer interfaces. Berger is credited with the development of electroencephalography, which was a major breakthrough for humans and helped researchers record human brain activity – the electroencephalogram (EEG). This was certainly a major discovery in human brain mapping, which made it possible to detect brain diseases. Richard Canton’s 1875’s discovery of electrical signals in animal brains was an inspiration for Berger. As one of the first common use of brain computer interface technology, EEG neurofeedback has been in use for several decades.
The year 1998 marked a significant development in the field of brain mapping when researcher Philip Kennedy implanted the first brain computer interface object into a human being. However, the BCI object was of limited function. The only benefit from this development was the use of a wireless di-electrode.
John Donoghue and his team of Brown University researchers formed a public traded company, Cyberkinetics, in 2001.